The Glass Manufacturing Industry Council

is a Trade Association of the Glass Industry

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The Shining Inferno - A Symposium on Glass Raw Materials

Christopher Hoyle, Vice President - Technical Director, Toledo Engineering Co., Inc. - Symposium Chair

Presented by the Glass Manufacturing Industry Council

From crystal-clear containers to the skin of a new high-rise office building, glass is a transparent, uniform and attractive material. It may not be obvious that its origin is a shining inferno where a mix of various minerals dug from the ground, perhaps collected from several continents, have been fused into a new entity. This symposium details the state of the art technologies as well as the challenges to glass manufacturers in selecting and processing raw materials for glass production.

Life cycle analysis of glass as a material that competes in our society with other materials is giving new attention to our raw materials. Major suppliers of minerals will be discussing the competing market forces involved in making best use of our mineral deposits, while keeping the costs to the glassmaker reasonable. Increasing quality demands on the glass, applies pressure for increasing purity of our raw materials and increasing beneficiation of what we can dig out of the ground. New glass products, including solar cells, make it critical to reduce trace contaminants such as iron oxide or minimize their effect. Possible use of alternate materials can help reduce energy usage and the carbon footprint of our glass plants. The logistics of collecting the hundreds of tons of raw materials needed each and every day will be discussed. New environmental restrictions are also forcing us to reconsider the choice of raw materials we have traditionally used.

This is an opportunity for members of the glass industry to discuss new ideas, and rethink old approaches with informed experts.

Click here to view Speaker Abstracts and Biographies.  To view presentation click on title name.

Program 1 - Regulations Affecting Raw Material Selection - NOX, SOX, mercury, chlorine, cullet, cap and trade, reducing agents, selenium, etc.

Regulations Affecting Raw Material Selection – As emission and safety regulations tighten, they may clash with a glassmaker’s traditional route to producing cost-effective and high-quality glass.   Alternate routes need to be defined. C. Phillip Ross, Glass Industry Consultant

Program 2 – Different Routes to the Same Glass  – Saving Energy/Carbon Footprint by Using Different Raw Materials to Reach Your Present Composition

Calumite Slag – Time to Look Again –  A review of how calumite slag is used worldwide and across glass sectors, with a focus on uses in the U.S.  Calumite can be used in the management of furnace emissions for quality improvements, increased furnace output, and reduction of greenhouse emissions. Mark A. Abraham, General Manager, Calumite Company, LLC

Alkaline Earths for Glass Manufacturing – You Have Choices –  A range of alkaline earth products can supply the CaO/MgO component of your glass.  These products have widely differing physical and chemical properties that can help optimize your glass operation.  Burned lime and dolomite offer potential benefits in both transportation and your carbon footprint. John Elliott, Sales Manager, Lhoist North America 

Glass Batch Activation for Better Melting Properties The batch mixer can do more than just achieve homogeneity. Sequenced mixing facilitates early reactions and reduces dissolution times.  Pelletization brings traditional benefits at reduced costs. Tests show great potential. Dan Britton, North American Sales Manager, Eirich Machines, Inc

New Freedom in Raw Materials for High-Intensity Melters – We hear “A melter is not a mixer”.  But this is not the case for these melters with high shear and high-speed flows.  The kinetics of melting and reaching homogeneity are much different. Our paradigms about raw materials can be challenged. David Rue, Manager, Industrial Combustion Processes, Gas Technology Institute

Program 3 - Logistics – Transportation and handling of raw materials

Logistics Issues – There are many factors involved in the cost and reliability of having your raw materials in your silos when you need them and free from contamination. We will look at these factors and how they may change in the near future.  Some will just be happening to us, and others we can influence. Wayne Johnson, Manager Global Carrier Relations, Owens Corning

Program 4 - Cleaning Up Our Act Opportunities for upgrading our raw materials for specialty products

Factors in US Sand Supply Both glassmakers and raw material suppliers need profitability and sustainability.  Are there changes that would be good for both? We will examine the sand market and how glass fits into it. Some specifications are critical; some may offer flexibility. Greg Bedford, Technical Sales Manager, Unimin Corporation

Benefits of Glass Cullet and Factors Affecting Supply - Increasing cullet in batch reduces energy consumption and emissions.  Manufacturers require a reliable supply of clean and affordable cullet, but various factors impact supply and price including multiple glass recycling stakeholders and raw material pricing. Joe Cattaneo, Packaging and Recycling Communications Consultant

Selective Glass Batching Liquids from low-temperature eutectics can drain away from the sand during melting of a normal glass batch, delaying final silica dissolution, increasing retention time, and energy costs. This is avoided by choosing partial combinations of the raw materials and segregating them during initial melting phases.  Various combinations of agglomeration, particle size, and melting schedules can optimize the results.  Selective Batching introduces raw materials into the melter in a manner that controls the raw material reactions within the batch during melting.  William M. Carty, CSL Materials, LLC

Wrap Up Summary review, take home lessons learned. Douglas Davis, PhD, Senior Glass Technologist, Toledo Engineering Co., Inc.



2011 GMIC Glass Recycling in America

 Challenges and Opportunities Symposium

Kenneth Lovejoy, VP, Environment, Health & Safety, O-I, Inc. – Symposium Chair

A Glass Manufacturing Industry Council Symposium

May 19, 2011

Hilton Savannah DeSoto, Savannah, GA

Glass Recycling in America has achieved only a fraction of its potential.  Glass is the only common product material with an endless life cycle, yet most glass in the U.S. is not reused.  Barriers to a more robust recycling utilization include both technical and economic barriers.  Many constituents have an interest in the state of glass recycling, including city and state governments, waste processors, glass industry suppliers as well as glass manufacturers.  This symposium brings all stakeholders together for the common purpose of understanding how to achieve a more robust and successful recycling of glass in America.

Click here to view Speaker Abstracts and Biographies.  To view presentation click on title name.


Life Cycle Assessment of Container Glass: Margaret Zahller, Senior Analyst, PE Americas

Understanding the True Valuation of Cullet: Anne E. House, Sustainability Portfolio Cullet Program Leader; O-I, Inc. and Peter Walters, Vice President, Purchasing and Distributions, Verallia/Saint-Gobain Containers

An Industry System for Quality Measurement: Kathleen Flight, Manager of Cullet and Recycling Procurement, Verallia/Saint-Gobain Containers

Modern Technologies for Cullet Processing: Gerhard Glawitsch, Head of Sales - Environmental Technology, BT Wolfgang Binder GmbH

State Government Perspective on Glass Recycling - Panel Discussion: Moderated by Daniel K. Steen, Vice President Government Affairs, O-I;

The Role of Government in Recycling-Georgia's Perspective: Gloria Hardegree, Executive Director, Georgia Recycling Coalition

State Perspective on Glass Recycling: Scott Mouw, Chief of Community and Business Assistance North Carolina State Recycling Program; and Frank Killoran, National Business Development Manager, Pratt Industries

Panel Discussion: Moderated by Kenneth Lovejoy, VP Environment, Health & Safety, O-I, Inc.; All Faculty including Bill Waltz, Chairman and CEO, Strategic materials; Curtis Bucey, President and COO, Strategic Materials; David Hudson, Vice President Government Affairs, Strategic Materials and Steve Bowles, Owner, Reflective Recycling


2010 GMIC Waste Heat Management Workshop

GMIC, TNO and Glass Trend

WHM Workshop

October 20, 2010

University Plaza Hotel - Columbus, Ohio

Waste Heat Management (WHM) has been identified as one of the most significant opportunities for reducing costs, energy usage, and emissions in the glass industry today.  Yet, for a number of reasons, besides numerous combustion air preheating technologies in place in the United States today, minimal use is being made of existing or developing approaches to recover waste heat and use it for other beneficial purposes.  An "Industrial Bandwidth" study completed in 2007 clearly demonstrates the available savings from effective waste heat management to our industry. 

Session 1 - Waste Heat Management Applied to Process Inputs

Session Chair - Scott Ryan

Corning Incorporated

Session 2 - Waste Heat Recovery Boilers

Session Chair - Mike Strohscher

Libbey, Inc.

Workshop Proceedings CD

Attendees no - charge

GMIC Members $35.00   Non-Members $55.00

click here to order CD

2009 GMIC Energy Efficiency Workshop

Energy Efficiency in Glass Melting - Various Approaches to Energy Efficiency in Glass Furnaces

November 15, 2009

University Plaza Hotel - Columbus, Ohio

Energy Efficiency (EE) in glass melting operations continues to be of major interest to our industry!  For the second time in three years the GMIC workshop held at the conclusion of the Glass Problems Conference in Columbus, Ohio, focused on various approaches to improve the Energy Efficiency in glass furnaces.  Around 100 attendees hear 8 speakers from 4 countries presenting their ideas and experience with reducing energy. 

 Click here to see abstracts and speaker bios.

To order the Energy Efficiency Workshop CD download the linked order form and email it to Executive Assistant Donna Ransom at:  (Tel: +1-614-523-3033) or fax it to (+1-614-818-9485).  Cost, including international postage is: $25.00 for GMIC members, and $35.00 for non-members. 


GMIC 2008 Workshop CDs

Building a Sustainable Global Glass Industry Workshop - November 3, 2008

Rising Energy Costs, Environmental Constraints, Globalization, Technical Challenges:  Al of these raise questions regarding viable paths forward for the Glass Industry.  International leaders and experts in these areas shared their views on these and other issues and participated with the audience in open discussion regarding possible strategic directions we can take to ensure our industry's long term sustainability.

The CD contains all presentations as well as a summary document reviewing the main points of each presentation and outlining actions to be taken by the GMIC, its members, and the broader international glass industry. 

To view the the full agenda Click here: speaker biographies and abstracts Click here .   To order your copy of the CD click here.  Cost, including transportation $25.00 for GMIC members $35.00 for non-member.

Safety - It's Too Important to be Proprietary and Alternative Energies - Addressing Rising Prices and Carbon Constraints - Two Part Workshop November 6, 2008

This workshop CD contains presentations given at this workshop highlighting a wide range of approaches available to the glass industry to reduce its energy intensity, utilize alternative energy sources and finance capital costs of improvements

Additional sessions on leveraging government partnerships and the importance of safety in the glass industry were included in the day's activities

To view the full agenda, Click here;  speaker biographies and abstracts. Click here   To order your copy of the CD click here.  Cost, including transportation $25.00 for GMIC members $35.00 for non-member.



Industrial Glass Bandwidth Analysis

Prepared by: David M. Rue; James Servaites, Dr. Warren Wolf 

Download at No Charge 


The Industrial Glass Bandwidth Analysis has been prepared as a guide to identifying places in the glass-making process where energy can be saved and the means whereby it can be saved.  This was accomplished by reviewing available literature, discussions with industry experts, and several rounds of questionnaires sent to industry experts. 

 The study provides current benchmarking of glass industry energy use.  Each of the major glass segments has been considered separately due to inherent differences in their energy use profiles.  Also to provide guidance on where the largest energy savings are possible, the energy use in each glass industry segment has been presented in two ways 1) by process step; and 2) in current average, state-of-the-art, practical minimum and theoretical minimum.  The original project approach is presented in the appendix of the analysis for reference.

Glass Industry Brochure

The GMIC has published an informational/promotional piece on the glass industry that illustrates, in full color, the many aspects of glass: from its origins in nature through its evolution to its reality today as an integral part of every aspect of our life.  Produced through the cooperative efforts of Schott Glass Technologies, Corning, Inc., the Department of Energy, and the GMIC, this is the first brochure in this country to bring together all the wonders of glass for a variety of audiences: glass companies will provide to prospective and new employees; high schools and universities can use it in science courses and to introduce engineering students to the possibilities of glass; the general public will respond to the beauty and diversity of this ubiquitous product. 

The cost is $120/case (120 pcs./cs) plus $17 S&H

Order Brochures here

Request a single copy on our "Contact Us" page.

Technical and Economic Assessment (TEA) Available at GMIC

October 2004

An in-depth look at the glass industry, tracing the history of current and developing melting technologies and describing the economic challenges the industry faces.  This comprehensive reference book was produced by the GMIC under contract to the Department of Energy.  Principal Investigators Phil Ross and Gabe Tincher interviewed representatives of over 90 companies and consulted hundreds of technical articles and patents to create this complete overview of our industry, its past and possible future!  Margaret Rasmussen of the Paul Vickers Gardner Glass Center, and former Editor of the "Glass Researcher", is Editor.

You can order the TEA for $15.00 by clicking here (add shipping charge of $6.50 U.S. and $13 non-U.S. applies) or you may download the entire document free of charge by clicking here.

Glass: A Clear Vision for A Bright Future

Learn how the U.S glass industry is responding to the competitive, environmental, and technological challenges facing it. In this document, the industry outlines its vision for research priorities and long-range goals to maintain and build its competitive market position. book coverThe report provides an overview of the glass industry, past, present, and future, and defines industrial, academic, and government research partnerships to ensure a bright future. Available at no charge from the Department of Energy.

Request copies of the Glass Vision at by calling 614-523-3033 or contact us  on our "Contact Us" page.

International Bandwidth Analysis - Sustainability Study of US and European Glass Industry Carbon Constraints and Energy

Prepared by: Dr. Warren Wolf

Joint project of: Glass Manufacturing Industry Council and U.S. Department of Energy Industrial Technology Program

Download at No Charge

A series of questions were submitted to leaders in both US and the European Glass Industry.  The focus of the questionnaire and this paper giving the results of the survey is to offer the Glass Manufacturing Industry Council/GMIC as well as the Industrial Technology Program/ITP in Glass within the US/DOE with an understanding of where the glass industry within the US presently stands with respect to issues around sustainability and in particular with respect to carbon constraints and its future implications on the glass industry as well as the anticipated issues in the industry around energy costs and availability. 

This study is different from other recent work done for ITP-Glass in that it also considers a large body of responses from European Glass Leaders. In a sense this realizes two aspects: First GMIC is now opening its membership to all global glass manufacturers. And second the issues of sustainability within the glass industry that arise from carbon constraints and the costs of energy and its availability are issues that will require global considerations if best solutions are to be found

Glass Industry Technology Roadmap

Recognizing the need for cooperative technology planning for a competitive future, the glass industry, together with the Department of Energy's OIT, held the "Glass Technology Roadmap Workshop" in 1997. A detailed report was issued from this workshop, which brought together 38 industry experts, universities, and national laboratories to help identify key targets of opportunity, technological barriers, and research priorities in the glass industry. The April 2002 edition resulted from information gathered in subsequent workshops held in 1999 and 2000.  This information has been used to update and refine the output of the earlier workshop and develop a more coherent roadmap.  This report is available online and at no charge from the Department of Energy.

Down load your copy by clicking here or you may order directly from GMIC (order here).


Oxy-Fuel Issues II: Approaching the New Millenium - Workshop Proceedings

Proceedings of the Second Workshop organized by the U.S. Glass Industry on 10 February, 1999, in Washington, D.C., which presented information on latest technologies relating to Oxy-Fuel combustion for use in that industry. 26 Papers are presented in a series of "roundtables" in following subject areas: Oxygen Generation Technologies, Combustion and Emissions, Refractories, Process Optimization: Sensors & Modeling, and Waste Heat Recovery. Graphics of all presentations are included. Q&A and discussions followed. Includes full attendance list of 100+ glass industry
Free  (plus $6.50 S&H in US) for orders outside US please call for shipping charges.

Order Book

Energy & Environmental Profile of the Glass Industry - April 2002

This detailed report benchmarks the energy and environmental characteristics of the key technologies used in the major processes of the glass industry.

Free  (plus $6.50 S&H in US) for orders outside US please call for shipping charges.

Order Book

GMIC Symposium – Alternatives for Energy Reduction May 2006

GOMD Spring 2006 Meeting)

GMIC Symposium CD with presentation on two different themes:

SYNGAS -  08:00 a.m. to 10:40 a.m.  speakers addressed the question of alternative fuel sources, focusing on the possibilities of “Syngas” derived from “clean coal gasification” being used as an alternative to increasingly expensive natural gas for glass melting.

GLASS MELTING APPROACHES - 10:40 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. speakers presented a number of different approaches that could be effectively adopted in glass melting so as to reduce the energy intensity of the melting process.

As a bonus, we have included the presentation presented by Fred Quan, the Meeting Keynote Speaker, on: “Shattering Stale Concepts – Re-Inventing the Glass Industry”.  Click here to review the documents appearing on the CD.

The cost: $25.00 includes shipping and handling

We can accept payment by check or credit/debit card (Visa, MasterCard or Discover -- NOT American Express - Credit card only for non-U.S. destinations please.  Contact Donna Ransom at 614-523-3033 or

High Temperature Glass Melt Property Database for Process Modeling

September 2005

This work is the result of a study to develop a high-temperature melt properties database with sufficient comprehensive and reliability to allow mathematical modeling of glass melting and forming processes for improved product quality, improved efficiency and lessened environmental impact. ISBN 1-57498-225-7

Editors: Thomas P. Seward, III, Terese Vascott

The cost: $109.00 US/ $141.99 CAD/£64.50/€90.90

To order your copy visit Wiley at

R & D Portfolio Documents

The last full solicitation was the 2002 program.  Programs that resulted from this were implemented in 2003 and, for the most part, completed in 2005.  These included the following:

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